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Table of Contents

  1. Topic pack - Marketing - introduction
  2. 4.1 The role of marketing - notes
  3. 4.1 The role of marketing - questions
  4. 4.2 Marketing Planning - notes
    1. Marketing planning
    2. The marketing mix
    3. The Total Product Concept
    4. Ethics of marketing
    5. Marketing audit
    6. Porter's five forces
    7. Porter's five forces - activities
    8. Marketing objectives
    9. Market research - introduction
    10. The role of market research
    11. Primary and secondary research
    12. Primary research - information gathering techniques
    13. Observations - case studies
    14. Group-based market research
    15. Market research - summary
    16. Questionnaires
    17. Sampling
    18. Methods of sampling - introduction
    19. Main methods of sampling
    20. Sampling errors
    21. Market segmentation
    22. Consumer Profiles
    23. Types of segments
    24. Demographic segmentation
    25. Psychographic segmentation
    26. Psychographic segmentation - case study
    27. Geographic segmentation
    28. Industrial markets
    29. Targeting
    30. Positioning
    31. Corporate image
    32. Position/perception maps
    33. Unique selling point/proposition USP
    34. Marketing strategies and tactics
    35. Sales forecasting
    36. Qualitative forecasting/data
    37. Forecasting and correlation
    38. Forecasting techniques
    39. Constructing time-series analysis
    40. Moving average
    41. Four point moving average - worked example
    42. Identifying the seasonal variation
  5. 4.2 Marketing planning - questions
  6. 4.3 Product introduction - notes
  7. 4.3 Product - questions
  8. 4.3 Product - simulations and activities
  9. 4.4 Price - notes
  10. 4.4 Price - questions
  11. 4.4 Price - simulations and activities
  12. 4.4 Promotion - notes
  13. 4.5 Promotion - questions
  14. 4.6 Place (distribution) - notes
  15. 4.7 International marketing - notes
  16. 4.7 International marketing - questions
  17. 4.8 E-commerce - notes
  18. 4.8 E-commerce - questions
  19. Printable version

Observations - case studies


The following is a of computer visualisation of consumer movements around an IKEA store:

C:\Users\Paul\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Outlook\3NXEDMZM\case_study.gifNielsen.png

Examining how people 'observe' online is much more difficult than observing physical human behaviour, but increasingly important as most firms now have an online presence. Market research organisations are developing more and more sophisticated ways of tracking consumers' online behaviours. Many consumer groups believe that much of this research is an unnecessary, and/or unacceptable intrusion, into consumers' private lives and there should be stricter controls on what is perceived as a breach of privacy. Certainly downloading tracking 'cookies' , as spyware, onto private computers is morally dubious, but a frequently performed activity.

Alternatively, it is possible to get customers to agree in advance to tracking behaviour, especially if a fee is involved. ACNielsen is a US global marketing research firm operating in more than 100 countries, which provides marketers with research data on the impact of their marketing and sales programmes. The company is well known for its Nielsen ratings, which measure television, radio and newspaper audiences in their respective media markets. In 1950s Neilsen began to attach recording devices to a statistical sample of about 1200 consumer television sets in the U.S, These devices recorded the channels and programmes viewed by the consumer and thus determine audience size. Later they developed electronic methods of data collection and transmission.

In 1996, ACNielsen set up a separate market research company called Nielsen Media Research (NMR), which has recently developed online tracking techniques to produce campaign ratings as explained in the following video, which you can also open in a separate window.

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If you have not done so before, try downloading a spyware removal programme on your personal computer, such as Spybot - Search and Destroy, and run it to see if your computer is harbouring spyware - you may be surprised!


Examples of spyware found on a computer.